Taiwanese Government and Structure
- Executive Branch 行政院 including a President and Vice-President Pair elected through universal suffrage, and a Premier appointed by the President
- Legislative Branch including a unicameral body called the 立法院 (Li fa yuan) Legislative Yuan, composed of 73 elected in SMD (single member districts) through first-past-the-post elections, 34 elected through a supplemental member system through PR (proportional representation) called Legislators-at-large, and 6 seats reserved for registered members of Taiwanese Aboriginal tribes through SNTV (single non-transferable vote) elections in two three-member constituencies, one for “mountain” tribes and one for “plains” tribes
- Judicial Branch 司法院 includes a hierarchy of courts, with constitutionality decided by the 大法官會議 Council of Grand Justices, with 15 Justices of the Constitutional Court. Taiwan’s President selects a President and Vice President of the Judicial Yuan from amonst the Justices, and those two will serve four years terms along with six others. The other seven justices serve eight year terms.
- Control Yuan 監察院, which has the power to investigate and impeach any elected official after an investigation into wrongdoing and a majority vote, except the President and Vice President, who can only be impeached by the 立法院 Legislative Yuan.
- Examination Yuan 考試院 responsible for controlling the testing for civil servants, its members are appointed by the 行政院 Executive Yuan and approved by the 立法院 Legislative Yuan.
Taiwanese Political Parties and Figures
- DPP 民進黨 (Democratic Progressive Party，民主進步黨) – labelled the Green party on the spectrum of Taiwanese politics, claim to be better on Democracy and have on-off been focused on promoting Taiwanese independence and nationhood since their illegal formation in the 1980s, focus on non-PRC international relations
- KMT 國民黨 (Kuomintang/Guomindang, Chinese Nationalist Party 中國國民黨) – labelled the Blue party on the spectrum of Taiwanese politics, claim to be better on economics in terms of cooperation with local and Chinese elites, promote cross-strait stability though positive and friendly relations with the PRC
- NPP 時代力量 (New Power Party) – formed in the aftermath of the 2014 Sunflower Movement, leans Green, strongly associated with 黃國昌 Huang Guo Chang
- TPP 台灣民眾黨 (Taiwan People’s Party) – completely dominated by 柯文哲 Ke Wen Zhe
- PFP 親民黨 – leans Blue, dominated by 宋楚瑜 Song Chu Yu
- TSU 台灣團結聯盟 (Taiwan Solidarity Union) – associated with 李登輝 Li Deng Hui, no 立法院 seats won since 2012
- NP 新黨 (New Party) – supports a one country, two systems style (1C2S) outcome for Taiwan, leans Blue, closely associated with 外省人, no 立法院 seats won since 2004
- TSP 台灣基進 (Taiwan Statebuilding Party) – leans Green, pro-independence, now associated with 陳柏惟 Chen Bo Wei